Considered by many to be the father of theoretical computer science and artificial intelligence, Turing was also credited with shortening World War 2 by as many as two to four years due to his work breaking intercepted German codes. His efforts and brilliant work likely saved millions of lives.
In 1952 Turing was prosecuted for homosexual acts which were still considered criminal activities in the UK. He was given the choice of prison or chemical castration – he chose the latter to avoid incarceration. The treatments he received during the next year rendered him impotent and caused Gynecomastia. Further, his conviction led to the removal of his security clearance and barred him from continuing his cryptographic work. Turing committed suicide shortly after this series of tragic injustices in 1954.